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Chapter 2 features global-scale climate variables; Chapter 3 highlights the global oceans; and Chapter 4 covers tropical climate phenomena including tropical cyclones. A key characteristic of abrupt climate changes is that they can unfold faster than expected, planned for, or budgeted for, forcing a reactive, rather than proactive mode of behavior. Committee on Understanding and Monitoring Abrupt Climate Change and Its Impacts; Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. The chapter also examines both abrupt climate changes in the physical climate system itself and abrupt climate impacts in physical, biological, or human systems that are triggered by a steadily changing climate. The approach can be used by local and state planners to objectively evaluate different policy options for effectiveness and cost/benefit.

The chapters of the report assess risks and opportunities for societies, economies, and ecosystems around the world. The chapter also examines the extent to which regional changes to the ocean can be accurately detected and attributed to anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification. Mark Eakin, Arne Eide, Benjamin Halpern, Charles R. Access to the state emergency data base (E-911) provides information on structure characteristics and the ability to perform analyses for individual structures.

This is the 26th edition of the annual assessment now known as State of the Climate. These considerations provide the context for understanding Americans’ changing health risks and allow us to identify, project, and respond to future climate change health threats. They estimate that the incidence of severe pteropod shell dissolution owing to anthropogenic OA has doubled in near shore habitats since pre-industrial conditions across this region and is on track to triple by 2050. Link: Resource type: Research article Description: (Abstract) Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ecosystems; however, assessing its future impact is difficult because laboratory experiments and field observations are limited by their reduced ecologic complexity and sample period, respectively. Marchitto Jr., Ryan Moyer, Carles Pelejero, Patrizia Ziver, Gavin L. Resource type: Report Description: The chemistry of the ocean is changing in ways that will impact services and resources provided by the ocean such as food, recreation, transportation, energy, nutrient-cycling, and climate moderation.

The year 2015 saw the toppling of several symbolic mileposts: notably, it was 1.0°C warmer than preindustrial times, and the Mauna Loa observatory recorded its first annual mean carbon dioxide concentration greater than 400 ppm. The overall findings underscore the significance of the growing risk climate change poses to human health in the United States. These results demonstrate that habitat suitability for pteropods in the coastal CCE is declining. In contrast, the geological record contains long-term evidence for a variety of global environmental perturbations, including ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses. Several federal agencies are working towards developing a collective approach to understand and address this rapidly emerging problem, commonly referred to as ocean acidification.

Each year from January to June, hundreds of scientists from around the world crunch the numbers on the previous year's climate, reviewing and cataloging everything from the humidity of the atmosphere, to the number and strength of hurricanes in every part of the ocean, to the size of the Arctic sea ice pack. But add to this problem a future sea-level rise wrought by climate change, and islanders who today experience deluges of tidal flooding once every month or two could see their homes unfit for human habitation within the coming decades.” Reference: The Marshall Islands are Disappearing (2015). ref=earth&_r=1 Resource type: Report Description: Global phenomena, such as sea level rise, affect local land use decisions, especially over longer time horizons. Thus, coastal vulnerability, impact, and adaptation assessments require an understanding of the long-term, global and regional drivers of environmental change. • About the Indicator: A description of the data source and how the indicator was developed. The indicators are divided into six chapters: Greenhouse Gases, Weather and Cli­mate, Oceans, Snow and Ice, Health and Society, and Ecosystems. , is to consider the vulnerability and exposure of human and natural systems, the observed impacts and future risks of climate change, and the potential for and limits to adaptation. Reference: Description: This chapter describes key findings on impacts, vulnerabilities, projections, and adaptation responses relevant to specific North American sectors: ecosystems, water, agriculture, human health, urban and rural settlements, infrastructure and the economy. Additional geographic detail is presented in the regional chapters of this report. She states that while some of these organisms do appear to have a degree of adaptive ability, this capacity is limited and increasing ocean acidity could push these creatures past a tipping point where they would be unable to construct shells. Chapter 2 presents an introduction to the carbon biogeochemical system in the Arctic Ocean: processes that influence the carbon system; processes sensitive to ocean acidification; present sources and sinks of carbon in the Arctic Ocean; current features of ocean acidification in the different Arctic seas; and a discussion of future scenarios.

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Released on August 10, 2017, the report for 2016 documents an unprecedented milestone: global average carbon dioxide concentrations exceeded 400 parts per million for the first time in at least 800,000 years. Craig Allen, Larry Buchanan, David Furst and Derek Watkins (Producers). This report identifies four scenarios of global mean sea level rise ranging from eight inches to 6.6 feet by 2100 for use in assessing vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation strategies. Resource type: Report Description: This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. Each indicator features five elements: EPA has compiled an accompanying technical support documentcontaining more detailed information about each indicator, including data sources, data collection methods, calculations, statistical considerations, and sources of un­certainty. The chapters of the report assess risks and opportunities for societies, economies, and ecosystems around the world. It then goes on to highlight challenges and opportunities for adaptation, and future risks and adaptive capacity for three key climate-related risks. Smith (coordinating lead authors); Debra Davidson, Noah Diffenbaugh, Patrick Kinney, Paul Kirshen, and Paul Kovacs, Lourdes Villers Ruiz (lead authors); William Anderegg, Jessie Carr, Anthony Cheng, Thea Dickinson, Ellen Douglas, Rob de Loë, Hallie Eakin, Daniel M. Reference: Resource type: Research article Description: (Abstract) Few studies to date have demonstrated widespread biological impacts of ocean acidification (OA) under conditions currently found in the natural environment. Chapter 3 provides a description of the biological responses to ocean acidification: impacts on calcification rate, on polymorph mineralogy and elemental partitioning in hard parts like skeletons and shells; viral effects on marine organisms including fish and mammals; effects observed within the Arctic area and in other relevant areas including sub-Arctic waters and Antarctic waters; and interactions between multiple stressors.A list of relevant datasets and their sources for all chapters is provided as an Appendix." : The assessment of impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability in this report evaluates how patterns of risks and potential benefits are shifting due to climate change. Marine emissions of DMS are the largest natural source of atmospheric sulfur, and those sulfur aerosols play an important role in reflecting the sun’s energy back into space and cooling the planet.



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